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Nginx :nginx


nginx [engine x] is an HTTP and reverse proxy server,a mail proxy server,and a generic TCP/UDP proxy server,originally written by Igor Sysoev.For a long time, it has been runningon many heavily loaded Russian sites includingYandex,Mail.Ru,VK, andRambler.According to Netcraft, nginx served or proxied21.20%busiest sites in January 2023.Here are some of the success stories:Dropbox,Netflix,Wordpress.com,FastMail.FM.




nginx :nginx



Since this is our first interaction with the apt packaging system in this session, we will update our local package index so that we have access to the most recent package listings. Afterwards, we can install nginx:


A Deployment named nginx-deployment is created, indicated by the.metadata.name field. This name will become the basis for the ReplicaSetsand Pods which are created later. See Writing a Deployment Specfor more details.


The .spec.selector field defines how the created ReplicaSet finds which Pods to manage.In this case, you select a label that is defined in the Pod template (app: nginx).However, more sophisticated selection rules are possible,as long as the Pod template itself satisfies the rule.


Here you see that when you first created the Deployment, it created a ReplicaSet (nginx-deployment-2035384211)and scaled it up to 3 replicas directly. When you updated the Deployment, it created a new ReplicaSet(nginx-deployment-1564180365) and scaled it up to 1 and waited for it to come up. Then it scaled down the old ReplicaSetto 2 and scaled up the new ReplicaSet to 2 so that at least 3 Pods were available and at most 4 Pods were created at all times.It then continued scaling up and down the new and the old ReplicaSet, with the same rolling update strategy.Finally, you'll have 3 available replicas in the new ReplicaSet, and the old ReplicaSet is scaled down to 0.


For example, suppose you create a Deployment to create 5 replicas of nginx:1.14.2,but then update the Deployment to create 5 replicas of nginx:1.16.1, when only 3replicas of nginx:1.14.2 had been created. In that case, the Deployment immediately startskilling the 3 nginx:1.14.2 Pods that it had created, and starts creatingnginx:1.16.1 Pods. It does not wait for the 5 replicas of nginx:1.14.2 to be createdbefore changing course.


To configure Nginx as a reverse proxy to forward HTTP requests to your ASP.NET Core app, modify /etc/nginx/sites-available/default. Open it in a text editor, and replace the contents with the following snippet:


With the preceding configuration file and default server, Nginx accepts public traffic on port 80 with host header example.com or *.example.com. Requests not matching these hosts won't get forwarded to Kestrel. Nginx forwards the matching requests to Kestrel at :5000. For more information, see How nginx processes a request. To change Kestrel's IP/port, see Kestrel: Endpoint configuration.


Once the Nginx configuration is established, run sudo nginx -t to verify the syntax of the configuration files. If the configuration file test is successful, force Nginx to pick up the changes by running sudo nginx -s reload.


While nginx capitalizes on the demand for its high performance, recently overtaking Microsoft with its install base, its own name has also had a tendency to be capitalized. Originally called nginx, the server is today used by several commercial products that have rebranded it as NGINX. This has led to much confusion over how the name of this server should be stylised.


The fully-capitalized NGINX name could become a more prominent term as time goes by, especially with the new NGINX Unit product being announced on nginx.org. Similarly-branded products supported by NGINX Inc. are NGINX Plus (a software load balancer, web server and content cache built on top of the open source nginx server), the NGINX Controller monitoring and management platform, the NGINX Amplify SaaS-based monitoring tool, and the NGINX WAF (web application firewall).


nginx has also been referred to as nginx, Nginx and NGINX by Cloudflare, which uses a modified version to optimize the delivery of its customers' websites; but notably, the most recent articles on the Cloudflare blog have trended towards using the fully-capitalised name. Cloudflare also ditched the lowercase nginx from its server name recently, renaming it from cloudflare-nginx to just cloudflare, although this change was merely intended to reflect the lesser role that nginx now plays in Cloudflare's software stack.


Also bear in mind that the fully-capitalised NGINX Inc. was co-founded in 2011 by nginx's original author, who currently serves as its CTO. This could be viewed as tacit approval of the uppercase variant, but the lowercase nginx name remains far more visible today: Wix, WordPress, Groupon, Zendesk, Adobe, OpenDNS and Buzzfeed are among those listed as NGINX customers, but all of their NGINX-powered sites exhibit the lowercase nginx in Server headers.


NGINX Inc. further dilutes its branding by calling its annual NGINX user conference nginx.conf, mimicking the name of nginx's main configuration file. These lowercase legacies of nginx are likely to manifest themselves for some time yet.


With no canonical naming conventions apparent, Netcraft will continue to use the lowercase nginx to refer to the open source nginx server, as well as the group of products closely based on it (including NGINX Plus and, until recently, cloudflare-nginx). The uppercase NGINX will be used to describe products and services that are exclusively provided by NGINX Inc.


By default, Nginx looks in the /usr/share/nginx/html directory inside of the container for files to serve. We need to get our html files into this directory. A fairly simple way to do this is use a mounted volume. With mounted volumes, we are able to link a directory on our local machine and map that directory into our running container.


We start building our custom image by using a base image. On line 1, you can see we do this using the FROM command. This will pull the nginx:latest image to our local machine and then build our custom image on top of it.


The Dockerfile sets up a multi-stage build. We first build our React.js application and then we copy the nginx.conf file from our local machine into the image along with our static html and javascript files that were built in the first phase.


The following configuration should be used when Nextcloud is placed in thewebroot of your nginx installation. In this example it is/var/www/nextcloud and it is accessed via http(s)://cloud.example.com/


If you configure nginx (globally) to block all requests to (hidden) dot files,it may be not possible to upload files greater than 10 MiB using the webpagedue to Nextclouds requirement to upload the file to an url ending with /.file.


Configure proxy server to redirect all requests on port 80 to a lightweight http server that listens to port 8000. To do that, write the following Nginx configuration: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 server listen 80; listen [::]:80; access_log /var/log/nginx/reverse-access.log; error_log /var/log/nginx/reverse-error.log; location / proxy_pass :8000;


nginx (pronounced "engine X"), is a free, open-source, high-performance HTTP server and reverse proxy, as well as an IMAP/POP3 proxy server, written by Igor Sysoev in 2005. nginx is well known for its stability, rich feature set, simple configuration, and low resource consumption.


You should choose a fitting value for worker_processes. This setting ultimately defines how many connections nginx will accept and how many processors it will be able to make use of. Generally, making it the number of hardware threads in your system is a good start. Alternatively, worker_processes accepts the auto value since versions 1.3.8 and 1.2.5, which will try to autodetect the optimal value (source).


Installing nginx in a chroot adds an additional layer of security. For maximum security the chroot should include only the files needed to run the nginx server and all files should have the most restrictive permissions possible, e.g., as much as possible should be owned by root, directories such as /usr/bin should be unreadable and unwriteable, etc.


nginx needs /dev/null, /dev/random, and /dev/urandom. To install these in the chroot create the /dev/ directory and add the devices with mknod. Avoid mounting all of /dev/ to ensure that, even if the chroot is compromised, an attacker must break out of the chroot to access important devices like /dev/sda1.


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